Theoretical Modalities

A brief description of each modality and how a therapist might integrate aspects or techniques from each to provide a tailored treatment for their clients:

Person-Centred Therapy

Person-centred therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizes the importance of empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence in the therapeutic relationship. The therapist creates a safe and non-judgmental space where clients can explore their feelings, thoughts, and experiences at their own pace. Techniques from person-centred therapy might include active listening, reflection, and empathic understanding. Therapists may integrate this approach by prioritizing the client’s unique experiences and perspectives, fostering self-awareness, and promoting self-acceptance.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

CBT is a goal-oriented and structured approach that focuses on identifying and challenging negative thought patterns and behaviours. Therapists help clients recognize how their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are interconnected and explore more adaptive ways of thinking and coping. Techniques from CBT might include cognitive restructuring, behavioural experiments, and homework assignments. Therapists may integrate this approach by collaboratively setting specific goals with clients, providing practical strategies for managing symptoms, and empowering clients to change unhelpful patterns.

Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic therapy, rooted in Freudian principles, explores how unconscious conflicts and past experiences influence current thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. Therapists work with clients to gain insight into underlying dynamics and patterns, often focusing on early childhood experiences and relational patterns. Techniques from psychodynamic therapy might include free association, dream analysis, and exploring transference and countertransference. Therapists may integrate this approach by helping clients explore deep-seated emotions and beliefs, uncovering unconscious motivations, and fostering insight and self-awareness.

Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy views individuals as the authors of their own stories and focuses on externalizing problems, exploring alternative narratives, and empowering clients to rewrite their stories in more positive and empowering ways. Therapists help clients deconstruct dominant narratives and construct new, preferred narratives that align with their values and strengths. Techniques from narrative therapy might include externalising conversations, reauthoring techniques, and exploring unique outcomes. Therapists may integrate this approach by collaboratively creating new narratives with clients, highlighting strengths and resources, and promoting agency and empowerment in shaping their lives.


Using Mindfulness practice to being intentionally fully present, using our five senses of seeing, hearing, touching, tasting and smelling we can enhance our awareness to the present moment as a grounding skill and emotional regulation.
By drawing on aspects or techniques from each modality, I can create a personalised and integrative treatment approach that addresses the unique needs, preferences, and goals of each client. This holistic approach allows me to tailor interventions effectively while honouring the complexity and diversity of human experience.

Scroll to Top